vyavasāyātmikā buddhireke’ha kurunandana,
bahuśākhā hy anantāśca buddhayo’vyavasāyinām (2.41)
2.41 – “On this auspicious path, O Kurunandan (Arjun), the resolute mind is one, but the minds of the ignorant are divided and many.”
The mind which is earnestly and firmly oriented to selfless action is unified. Selfless action is only one and its outcome is also one. Spiritual accomplishment is the only true achievement. The gradual realization of this attainment by fighting against forces of the material world is an enterprise. This enterprise and resolute action, with a single goal are also one and the same. Then what about those who propagate more than one mode of action? In Sri Krishn’s view theyare not true worshippers. The minds of such men are endlessly divided and that is why they conjure up endless ways.
yām imām puṣpitām vācam
nā’nyad astī’ti vādinaḥ (2.42)
bhogaiśvaryagatim prati (2.43)
2.42/43 – “Desire-ridden men, O Parth, who are given only to listening to Vedic promises of rewards for action, who believe that the attainment of heaven is the highest goal of temporal birth and its activities, and who speak pretentious words to describe the many rites and ceremonies that they regard as conducive to the achievement of worldly pleasure and power, are ignorant and bereft of discernment.”
The minds of such men are riddled with endless dissensions. Covetous and attached to the tempting promises made by Vedic verses, they regard heaven as the most sublime goal and they believe in nothing beyond this. Such ignorant men not only devise numerous rites and ceremonies, the performance of which is expected to bring such rewards as the next birth, sensual enjoyment, and worldly dominion, but also flaunt them in flowery and affected language. To put it differently, the minds of men without discrimination have infinite divisions. They are addicted to precepts which promise fruits of action and accept the pledges of the Ved as final and authoritative. They regard heaven as the highest goal. Because their minds are split by many differences, they invent numerous modes of worship. They do speak of God, but behind the cover of his name they build up a whole multitude of ritual ceremonies.
Now, are these activities not a form of action?Sri Krishn denies that these activities are true action. What then is true action? The question remains unanswered at this point.For the time being Sri Krishn only states that ignorant minds are divided minds, because of which they formulate an unlimited number of rites and ceremonies that are not real action. They not only expound them but also give utterance to them in figurative language.
samādhau na vidhīyate (2.44)
2.44 – “Delighted by ornamental words and attached to worldly pleasures and dominance, men without discrimination have irresolute minds.”
Minds which are affected by the tempting words of such people are also corrupted and they also fail to accomplish what is worthwhile. The people whose minds are enamoured of such words, and who are attached to sensual enjoyment and temporal power, are deprived of their capacity for action; they are bereft of resolve for the true action that is a prerequisite of contemplation of the worshipped God.
But who are the people that lend their ears to these unwise men? Of course, rather than being knowers of the Self within and the Supreme Spirit without, they are the ones who are addicted to sensual pleasure and temporal power. The minds of such men are lacking in will for the action that is needed for the ultimate union of the Self with the Supreme Spirit.
traiguṇyaviṣayā vedā nistraiguṇyo bhavā’rjuna,
nirdvandvo nityasattvastho niryogakṣema ātmavān (2.45)
2.45 – “Since all the Ved, O Arjun, only illumine the three properties, you should rise above them, be free from the contradictions of happiness and sorrow, rest on that which is constant, and be unconcerned with getting what you do not have as well as with protecting what you have, in order to dedicate yourself to the Self within.”
The Ved only illumine the three properties of nature. So Arjun should go beyond the sphere of action laid down by the Ved. How to do this?Sri Krishn advises Arjun to liberate himself from the conflicts of joy and sorrow, concentrate on the one changeless reality, and desire neither the unobtained nor the obtained; so that he may devote himself single-mindedly to the indwelling Self. This is how he can rise above the Ved. But is there any precedence of anyone going beyond them?Sri Krishn says that as a man transcends the Ved, even so he comes face to face with the Supreme Spirit, and that the man who is aware of him is a true Vipr, a Brahmin.
[As expounded by most revered Gurudev Swami Adgadanand Paramhans]