karmajam buddhiyuktā hiphalam tyaktvā manīṣiṇaḥ,
janmabandhavinirmuktāḥ padam gacchanty anāmayam (2.51)
2.51 -“Renouncing all desire for the fruits of their action and (thus) freed from the bondage of birth, wise men who are skilled in the way of equanimity and discrimination achieve the pure, immortal state.’’
Wise men endowed with the yog of discrimination renounce the fruits arising from their action and are liberated from the bondage of birth and death. They achieve the pure, immortal state of oneness with God.
Application of intellect is categorized here into three kinds. Firstly by the way of descrimination(in verses 31-39). This yields two results : Divine riches and ultimate bliss. Secondly by the way of selfless Action (in verse 39-51) which produces only one consequence-liberation from dire terror of repeated birth and death by attaining immaculate indestructible oneness with god. These are the only two ways described for the yog. The third type of application of intellect is done by the ignorants who are engaged in other endless modes of actions and who fall into the cycles of repeated birth and death according to their deeds.
Arjun’s vision is limited only to acquisition of sovereignty over the three worlds and even over gods. But even for the sake of these he is not inclined to war. At this point,Sri Krishn reveals to him the truth that a man can attain to the immortal state through selfless action. The Way of Selfless Action also provides access to the state of being which death cannot break into.
yadā te mohakalilam buddhir vyatitariṣyati
tadā gantāsi nirvedam śrotavyasya śrutasya ca (2.52)
2.52 -“At the time when your mind has successfully made its way across the swamp of attachment, you will be capable of the renunciation which is worth hearing of and which you have heard.”
The very moment Arjun’s mind, indeed the mind of any worshipper, has steered safely across the marsh of attachment, and when it is completely free from yearning for either children or riches or honour, all its worldly ties are broken.It will then be receptive, not only to what is proper for hearing, but also to the idea of renunciation, making it an integral part of its action according to what it has learnt. At the present moment, however, Arjun is unprepared to listen to what is proper for hearing; and so the question of its influencing his conduct, of course, simply does not arise.
śrutivipratipannā te yadā sthāsyati niścalā,
samādhāv acalā buddis tadā yogam avāpsyasi (2.53)
2.53 -“When your mind, now shaken by the conflicting precepts of the Ved, achieves a changeless and constant existence within the being of Supreme Spirit, you will then attain to immortal state through profound meditation.’’
When Arjun’s mind, at present riven through and through by the contradictory teachings of the Ved, achieves the state of steady contemplation of God, it will become changeless and constant, and then he will master the skill of even minded discrimination. He will then achieve the perfect equilibrium which is the ultimate state of immortality. This is the crowning point of yog. The Ved undoubtedly instruct us; but as Sri Krishn points out, the contradictory injunctions of the Shruti confuse the mind. Precepts there are many, but it is unfortunate that people usually keep away from the knowledge that is fit for learning.
Arjun is told that he will reach the stage of immortality, the culmination of yog, when his agitated mind achieves constancy by meditation. This naturally whets Arjun’s curiosity about the nature of sages who exist in an exalted state of perfect spiritual bliss, and whose minds are immovable and at peace in the state of abstract meditation.
sthitaprajñasya kā bhāṣā samādhisthasya keśava,
sthitadhīḥ kim prabhāṣeta kim āsīta vrajeta kim (2.54)
2.54 – Arjun said,“What, O Keshav, is the mark of the man who has attained to the state of true meditation and equanimity of mind, and how does this man with firm discrimination speak, sit, and walk ?”
That Soul which has resolved his doubts is in the state of samadhi or perfect absorption of thought in the Supreme Spirit, the one worthy object of meditation. One who has achieved even- minded discrimination by identification with the eternal essence, which has neither a beginning nor an end, is said to be in the state of abstract contemplation of the nature of the Supreme Spirit. Arjun asks Sri Krishn for the qualities of the man with a mind of equanimity engaged in such contemplation. How does a man with steadfast wisdom speak? How does he sit? What is his gait? Arjun has thus asked four questions.
śrībhagavān uvāca prajahāti yadā kāmān sarvān pārtha manogatān,
ātmany evā’tmanā tuṣṭah ̣sthiaprajñas tado’cyate (2.55)
2.55 -The Lord said,… “A man is then said to be steadfast in mind when he has renounced all the desires of his mind and achieved contentment of the Self through the Self.”
When a man has renounced all his desires and achieved his Soul’s contentment through the contemplation of his Soul, he is said to be a man of firm discernment. This Self is apprehended only through complete abandonment of passion. The sage who has viewed the ineffable beauty of his Self and found perfect satisfaction in him is the man with a steady judgement.
[As expounded by most revered Gurudev Swami Adgadanand Paramhans]