Knowledge and action and the doer have been graded into three kinds each,
Sankhya philosophy of properties (gun).
Lord Krishn sings:
“Know that knowledge as immaculate (sattwik)
by which one perceives the reality of the indestructible God
as an undivided entity in all divided beings.”
Such knowledge is direct perception,
with which the properties of nature come to an end.
It marks the culmination of awareness.
Let us now see knowledge of the second (rajas) kind.
“Know that knowledge as tainted by passion
which one perceives divided entities in all separate beings.”
“And know that knowledge as besmirched by ignorance (tamas)
which adheres to the body alone as if it were the whole truth,
which is irrational, unfounded on truth, and petty.”
Devoid of wisdom and the required discipline to buttress it,
this kind of knowledge is worthless as it takes one away
from awareness of God who is the one and only reality.
The following verses then recount the three kinds of action.
“That action is said to be immaculate
which is ordained and embarked on with detachment,
one who is free from infatuation as well as loathing,
who does not aspire to any reward.”
The ordained action is none other than worship and meditation
lead the Soul to God.
“And that action is said to be of the nature of passion
which is strenuous and entered upon by one
covets rewards and is egotistic.”
This seeker also performs the ordained action,
but what a great difference is made by the fact
he is desirous of rewards and possessed of vanity?
So the action undertaken by him bears
the character of moral blindness.
“That action is said to be unenlightened
which is taken up out of sheer ignorance
with disregard for outcome, loss to oneself,
injury to others,
as well as for one’s own competence.”
Such action is bound to be reduced to nothingness at last
it is unquestionably not approved by scripture.
Rather than action it is mere delusion.
Let us now see the attributes of the doer.
“That doer is said to be of immaculate nature
who is free from attachment,
who does not indulge in arrogant speech,
who is endowed with patience and vigour
as well as
unswayed by success and failure.”
These are the attributes of the righteous doer
the action he undertakes is, of course, the same ordained action.
“That doer is said to be of the attribute of passion
who is impulsive, covetous of the fruits of action, acquisitive,
subject to joy and sorrow.”
“That doer is said to be of the attribute of ignorance
who is fickle, uncouth, vain, devious, spiteful,
dispirited, lazy, and procrastinating.”
These are the attributes of the ignorant doer.
The scrutiny of the qualities of doers is concluded at this point.
~Revered Gurudev Swami Adgadanand Jee Paramhans~